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Climate and Geographic Factors:

  • Between the end of the Ming Dynasty and beginning of the Qing Dynasty, the climate was warm.
  • There was a lot of heat energy.
      • Cropping of rice in Taihu Lake Basin could grow with no protection.
  • They soon entered a little ice age.
  • Double cropping of rice nearly went though local extinction and grain production decreased drastically.
  • Bad weather such as floods and droughts ruined harvest.
  • Rice crops ruined by typhoons that hit the coastal areas late in the summers. 343.
  • South had a wetter climate, easy to grow rice.
  • North had a drier climate for wheat production.

Source: Shen Xiaoying, Chen Jiaqi
( Nanjing Institute of Georaphy & Limnology, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PRC)

(1) Spielvogel, Jackson J. "Qing Dynasty" World History
(2) Naquia and Rawski. "Qing Society" Chinese Society in the Eighteeth Century

Book source: China's imperial past. Charles O. Hucker.

A map of Qing dynasty, showing the surrounding kingdoms and peoples.